Reconstructing competitive advantage of manufacturing industry by digitization

2022-05-26 0 By

As the new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation deepens, digital technology is accelerating innovation, diffusion and industrial integration, becoming an important force for building a new development pattern, building a modernized economy and building China’s competitive edge.Facing the development of digital economy, China’s industrialization presents new characteristics different from traditional industrialization.Deep integration with digital technology and digital and intelligent transformation have become an important direction for China’s manufacturing industry to reconstruct competitive advantages, enhance the resilience of the industry chain and achieve high-quality development.Over the past 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, China has rapidly established a relatively complete industrial system from an impoverished agricultural country to become the world’s largest industrial country. In just a few decades, China has completed the industrialization process that took developed countries hundreds of years.One of the important reasons is that China’s industrial development has given full play to the advantages of abundant labor force and low wage level, seized the trend of division of global industrial chain in the 1980s to undertake international industrial transfer, and become the world’s most important processing and manufacturing base.However, with the development of China’s economy, the income level of the people continues to increase, while the total working-age population begins to decrease. In terms of both wage level and unit labor cost, China has no absolute advantage over developing countries in Southeast Asia, South Asia, Africa and so on.At the same time, China’s manufacturing environment is changing dramatically.First, the global industrial chain and value chain are facing restructuring due to the reverse tide of globalization and the impact of COVID-19. It is increasingly important to enhance the resilience and security of the industrial chain.Second, green and low-carbon has become a global consensus. Reducing energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions and ultimately achieving carbon neutrality have become the direction of efforts of all countries in the world. Industry, which is a major energy user and emitter, needs to accelerate the low-carbon transformation.Third, with the increase of income level and the growth of a new generation of consumers, consumers have increased requirements for product quality and added value, and personalized and customized products that highlight personal value have become a new direction of consumption.Digital technology is a typical enabling technology. Digital transformation and intelligent development can help the manufacturing industry effectively cope with the challenges of changes in domestic resource endowment and external environment, and help the manufacturing industry to reconstruct its competitive advantages and upgrade to a higher level of development while maintaining steady growth.Manufacturing digital transformation of the value of manufacturing activity includes both manufacturing enterprise of machinery, equipment, workshop, factory, logistics, operations management, such as value chain system, including from r&d to processing and manufacturing, and marketing, customer service, product recycling process of whole life cycle of products such as, also includes the manufacturing enterprises with business ecosystem composed of upstream and downstream suppliers, partners,Therefore, the digitization of manufacturing industry involves the digitization of internal production chain, product life cycle and business ecology.Current manufacturing digital practice is mainly embodied in the research and development design, manufacturing, supply chain management, customer relationship, value-added services, etc., showing digitalization in improving the efficiency of research and development, improve product quality, reduce production costs, enhance the flexible production line, speed up the response speed, expand value-added services, reduce the power and potential of emission of energy consumption, etc.Improve r&d efficiency.Twin, artificial intelligence, etc by using simulation software, digital technology and the accumulation of human knowledge of science and huge amounts of data, the combination of manufacturing enterprises can make prototype in the digitized virtual environment to product design, simulation, performance testing, using optimization improvement, solve the problem of most of the core technology, before formally put into production of new product development speed and cycle shorter, cost is lower.Pharmaceutical companies use massive data on molecular structure and functional targets accumulated in chemical and biological scientific research, pharmaceutical and clinical medicine to train artificial intelligence algorithms and conduct large-throughput molecular screening, which significantly improves the speed of drug screening.Early in the COVID-19 outbreak, scientists used artificial intelligence algorithms to screen out candidate drugs.Improve product quality.In a very long period of time, machines to replace human manual labor, workers from dangerous, heavy, dirty, boring work environment liberated.With the development of digital technology, more and more human intellectual work is replaced by intelligent machines, algorithms and software.Compared with manual activities, digital system has more powerful computing power, more accurate control and more stable accuracy.Additive manufacturing features of 3D printing can also process parts that traditional processes cannot reach, producing products with higher overall performance.Aircraft engine manufacturers use 3D printing technology to realize the integration of multiple components, simplify the engine structure, reduce the weight of the engine, thus improving the fuel efficiency of the engine, reducing the difficulty of engine assembly, improve the reliability and maintainability of the engine.Reduce production costs.Intelligent production systems, robots, numerical control machine tool has the characteristics of continuous work, as labor costs rise and as a decline in the cost of digital, intelligent production equipment and system, in order to machine substitution in more and more labor-intensive process becomes economically feasible, become the important means of manufacturing enterprises to cope with rising wages.Large factories have adopted machine vision intelligent inspection system, which can replace most of the visual inspection and re-evaluation workload of personnel.Digital technology can also analyze the massive data in the operation process of each equipment and each link in the production line, and find the optimal process parameter configuration, so as to improve the yield and reduce the production cost.Some solar wafer factories carry out simulation modeling and data collection and monitoring on the production line, and use big data analysis to find out 60 key variables from thousands of production parameters and optimize the Settings, so as to increase the rate of good slice by 1 percentage point and save hundreds of millions of yuan of production cost every year.Enhance production line flexibility.As imitation, PaiLangShi consumption faster to personalized, diversified consumption, mass production mode have already can’t meet the demand of market, industry needs to mass customization production mode or personalized custom, which requires the production line has a more flexible, according to the change of demand quickly and cheaply to adjust.Intelligent product development, processing and manufacturing, supply chain management system can be based on the order situation of rapid product design, material supply, production line scheduling, production line can also be adjusted according to the order situation when necessary.At present, there has been a consumer-centered exploration of the new mode of “sales”, which helps garment enterprises reduce trial and error costs, reduce inventory and loss, and drives the development of a number of independent designer brands.Speed up the response.To realize the rapid response to the market demand, not only need to know the market information immediately, but also need the support of the whole supply chain system.With the connection of networks, real-time acquisition of data, powerful data processing ability and flexible production chain, manufacturing enterprise can more accurately determine the market demand trends, timely accept user orders, according to customer’s order or forecast to coordinate production activities throughout the supply chain, using intelligent production scheduling system for fast and accurate production scheduling, thus improve the response speed of the market.With the support of digital technology, some Internet fast fashion clothing brands realize user endorsement in marketing and quick reversal of small orders in manufacturing, forming the advantages of many styles, fast delivery and high cost performance.Expand value-added services.With the increase of product complexity, users’ demand for value-added services continues to grow. Product-based value-added services have become an important source of income and profit for manufacturing enterprises.Because digital technology can efficiently collect and analyze the data of product operation and user use, and automatically provide customized services by intelligent system, it greatly expands the scope and type of service-oriented manufacturing, and service-oriented based on digital technology has become an important transformation direction of manufacturing industry.At the same time, the manufacturing industry is one of the largest areas of energy consumption and co2 emissions, greenhouse gas emission reduction in global consensus, set up to peak and neutralization target and develop carbon border adjustment tax rules, such as manufacturing enterprise energy saving carbon reduction is not only relate to product competitiveness, but also manufacture enterprise social responsibility.Digital technology has great potential in energy conservation and emission reduction in manufacturing industry by adjusting the composition of production factors, optimizing the process flow, improving production efficiency, improving quality and added value, and reducing the waste of resources and energy.In view of the powerful empowerment of digital technology to manufacturing industry, China should seize the historical opportunity of digital technology innovation and the vigorous development of digital economy.It integrates the advantages of large scale, complete categories, complete industrial chain, perfect supporting system and rich application scenarios of China’s manufacturing industry with the advantages of extensive coverage of digital infrastructure, multiple terminal equipment and users, advanced digital technology and rich data, and forms the comprehensive advantages of new manufacturing industry integrating manufacturing advantages and digital advantages.We will promote digital infrastructure development.According to the needs of industrial production process, supply chain operation and product application, we will appropriately and ahead plan the layout of new-type infrastructure of connectivity, computing power and data, such as next-generation mobile communication network, Internet of things, gigabit optical fiber network, big data center, cloud computing center and supercomputing center, to lay a solid foundation for the comprehensive digital transformation of manufacturing industry.We will strengthen innovation in digital technology.Increase the investment in basic science and industrial generic technology research and development, master the technical know-how of the industry itself, accelerate the development of industrial software, and realize the software reuse of industrial knowledge.Focus on intelligent manufacturing “hard technologies” such as smart chips, ultra-precision processing and 3D printing, and break through the shortcomings and pain points of manufacturing digitization.Seize the opportunities of disruptive innovation in the digital economy, advance the layout of cutting-edge research technologies, accelerate the development of strategic emerging industries and future industries in intelligent manufacturing related fields.We will accelerate digital transformation of manufacturing.The digital upgrade is regarded as the key field of the technological transformation of manufacturing enterprises, and the technological transformation funds are inclined to be invested.Local governments, where conditions permit, can increase capital input to support the digital transformation of manufacturing enterprises, and encourage banks to develop new credit products supporting the digital transformation of manufacturing by cooperating with digital equipment providers and digital solution providers.We will continue to carry out digital trials and demonstrations of smart manufacturing, service-oriented manufacturing, and the “use of data in the cloud to make smart decisions,” support manufacturing enterprises in digital transformation and intelligent upgrading based on their pain points in production and operation, and promptly summarize successful experiences and promote them.Strengthen compliance and open sharing of data.We will formulate rules for the implementation of laws on data protection and data security, strengthen international cooperation and synergization of rules, and revise laws on data protection in a timely manner.We will promote the development of digital technologies and the exploration of trading paradigms in which “raw data does not leave the domain and data is not visible when available”, accelerate the formation of national standards on technology, equipment interface and data format in intelligent manufacturing and industrial Internet platforms, and promote the connection of products and the flow, sharing and utilization of data.Support the construction of intelligent manufacturing platforms.Support leading enterprises in the industry to develop smart scenarios, build smart workshops, smart factories, smart supply chains and smart ecology, and build industrial Internet platforms with ubiquitous connectivity, real-time data collection, intelligent analysis and control.On the basis of mature internal application, leading enterprises in the industry are encouraged to open the industrial Internet platform to commercial ecological enterprises and the whole industry, and drive the digital transformation of small and medium-sized enterprises.We will encourage innovation in business models and forms of business.Encourage manufacturing companies, Internet companies, such as start-up, using digital technology to the enterprise value chain, customer value chain, industry chain to unlock, combination and refactoring, advancing the innovation of business model and industry forms, the value of huge amounts of data, to provide users with higher added value of products, Internet applications and value-added services.(The author is a researcher at the Institute of Industrial Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.